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Definitions

Abandonment

Neglect may be confirmed for abandonment when:

  • A caregiver leaves the child for an indefinite period without making firm and agreed plans with the child’s immediate caregiver for the parent’s resumption of physical custody.
  • The arranged caregiver is no longer able/willing to care for the child, is unable to reach the parent and the parent had not returned as expected or made alternate arrangements.
  • Following the child’s birth or treatment at a hospital, the caregiver fails to arrange for the child’s discharge within ten days after the child no longer requires hospital care; or
  • Willfully to fails to furnish food, shelter, clothing, or medical attention reasonably sufficient to meet the child’s needs.
  • Blatantly refuses physical custody of a child, such as the permanent or indefinite expulsion of a child from the home, without adequately arranging for his care by others or the refusal to accept custody of a returned child.
  • Substitute caregiver is not being financially supported for the care of the child.

Abandonment is defined in the Juvenile Court Act: North Dakota Century Code Chapter 27-20.2-01

Abandonment may not be considered when Abandoned Infant provisions have been met. See North Dakota Century Code Chapter 50-25.1-15

North Dakota’s Baby Safe Haven law allows a parent (or an agent of the parent with the parent’s consent) to surrender an infant without facing prosecution for abandonment. For details, including a brief training, click here.

Abused child

As defined in North Dakota Century Code  50-25.1-02(3) an ”abused child” means an individual under the age of eighteen years who is suffering from abuse as defined in section 14-09-22 caused by a person responsible for the child’s welfare and includes a “sexually abused child” who is suffering from or was subjected to any act in violation of North Dakota Century Code 12.1-20-01 through North Dakota Century Code  12.1-20-07 , North Dakota Century Code 12.1-20-11 through North Dakota Century Code 12.1-20-12.3 , or North Dakota Century Code  12.1-27.2 , by any individual, including a juvenile.

Abused: Physical

A physically abused child is defined in three different chapters of the North Dakota Century Code 50-25.1  Child Abuse and Neglect, North Dakota Century Code  14-09  Parent and Child and North Dakota Century Code 12.1 Criminal Code.

North Dakota Century Code Chapter  50-25.1-02(3) defines an “abused child” as an individual under the age of eighteen years who is suffering from abuse as defined in 14-09-22  caused by a person responsible for the child’s welfare.

North Dakota Century Code Chapter 14-09-22 defines the elements necessary for physical abuse: willfully inflicts or allows to be inflicted upon the child:

  • mental injury,
  • or bodily injury,
  • substantial bodily injury,
  • or serious bodily injury as defined by 12.1-01-04

North Dakota Century Code Chapter 12.1-01-04 defines “bodily injury”, “serious bodily injury”, and “substantial bodily injury”.

“Bodily injury” means any impairment of physical condition, including physical pain.
(Examples: Bruises, Welts, Cuts, Abrasions, Scratches, Bloodied Nose, Bite Marks, Pain)

“Serious bodily injury” means bodily injury that creates a substantial risk of death or which causes:

  • serious permanent disfigurement,
  • unconsciousness,
  • extreme pain,
  • permanent loss or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ,
  • a bone fracture,
  • or impediment of air flow or blood flow to the brain or lungs. (Examples: Fractures, Burns, Loss of Teeth, Internal Injuries, Poisoning, Unconsciousness, Extreme Pain)

Substantial bodily injury” means:

  • a substantial temporary disfigurement,
  • loss, or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ.(Examples: Swelling, Sprain and Strains, Unable to sit or pick up objects)
Abused: Sexual

A “sexually abused child” is defined in Chapter  50-25.1-02 (3)  of the North Dakota Century Code is any act in violations of North Dakota Century Code 12.1-20-01 through 12.1-20-07 , 12.1-20-11 through 12.1-20-12.3 , or 12.1-27.2 .

Gross sexual imposition: North Dakota Century Code  12.1-20-03  (does not require the actor to be an adult).

  • Compelling a victim to submit by force or by threat of imminent death, serious bodily injury, or kidnapping, to be inflicted on any human being.
  • Substantially impairing the victim’s power to appraise or control the victim’s conduct by administering or employing without the victim’s knowledge intoxicants, a controlled substance as defined in the Uniform Controlled Substances Act North Dakota Century Code 19-03.1 or other means with intent to prevent resistance.
  • Knowing or having reasonable cause to believe that the victim is unaware that a sexual act is being committed upon him or her.
  • Knowing or reasonable cause to believe that the other person suffers from a mental disease or defect which renders him or her incapable of understanding the nature of his or her conduct.

Continuous sexual abuse of a child: North Dakota Century Code  12.1-20-03.1  (requires an actor to be in adult court).

  • Any combination of three or more sexual acts or sexual contacts with a minor during a period of three or more months

Sexual imposition: North Dakota Century Code 12.1-20-04 (does not require the actor to be an adult).

  • Compels the other person to submit by any threat or coercion that would render a person reasonably incapable of resisting, or
  • Engages in a sexual act or sexual contact with another, whether consensual or not, as part of an induction, initiation, ceremony, pledge, hazing, or qualification to become a member or an associate of any criminal street gang as defined in North Dakota Century Code Chapter 12.1-06.2-01.
    • “Sexual act” means sexual contact between human beings consisting of contact between the penis and the vulva, the penis and the anus, the mouth and the penis, the mouth and the vulva, or any other portion of the human body and the penis, anus, or vulva; or the use of an object which comes in contact with the victim’s anus, vulva, or penis. For the purposes of this subsection, sexual contact between the penis and the vulva, the penis and the anus, any other portion of the human body and the anus or vulva, or an object and the anus, vulva, or penis of the victim, occurs upon penetration, however slight. Emission is not required.
    • “Sexual contact” means any touching, whether or not through the clothing or other covering, of the sexual or other intimate parts of the person, or the penile ejaculation or ejaculate or emission of urine or feces upon any part of the person, for the purpose of arousing or satisfying sexual or aggressive desires.
    • “Coercion” means to exploit fear or anxiety through intimidation, compulsion, domination, or control with the intent to compel conduct or compliance.

Corruption or solicitation of minors: North Dakota Century Code  12.1-20-05 (requires the actor to be an adult).

  • An adult who engages in, solicits with the intent to engage in, or causes another to engage in a sexual act with a minor,
  • An adult who solicits with the intent to engage in a sexual act with a minor, or engages in, or causes another to engage in, a sexual act.

Luring minors by computer or other electronic means: North Dakota Century Code  12.1.20-05.1 (requires the actor to be an adult).

  • The adult knows the character and content of a communication that, in whole or in part, implicitly or explicitly discusses or depicts actual or simulated nudity, sexual acts, sexual contact, sadomasochistic abuse, or other sexual performances and uses any computer communication system or other electronic means that allows the input, output, examination, or transfer of data or programs from one computer or electronic device to another to initiate or engage in such communication with a person the adult believes to be a minor, and;
  • By means of that communication the adult importunes, invites, or induces a person the adult believes to be a minor to engage in sexual acts or to have sexual contact with the adult, or to engage in a sexual performance, obscene sexual performance, or sexual conduct for the adult’s benefit, satisfaction, lust, passions, or sexual desires.

Sexual abuse of wards: North Dakota Century Code  12.1-20-06  (requires official custody or detained in a hospital, prison, or other institution and the actor has supervisory or disciplinary authority over the other person).

  • A person who engages in a sexual act with another person, or any person who causes another to engage in a sexual act when the other person is in official custody or detained in a hospital, prison, or other institution and the actor has supervisory or disciplinary authority over the other person.

Sexual exploitation by therapist: North Dakota Century Code  12.1-20-06.1  (requires the actor to be person who is or who holds oneself out to be a therapist).

  • Any person who is or who holds oneself out to be a therapist and who intentionally has sexual contact, as defined in section 12.1-20-02 , with a patient or client during any treatment, consultation, interview, or examination.
  • “Psychotherapy” means the diagnosis or treatment of a mental or emotional condition, including alcohol or drug addiction.
  • “Therapist” means a physician, psychologist, psychiatrist, social worker, nurse, addiction counselor, member of the clergy, or other person, whether licensed or not by the state, who performs or purports to perform psychotherapy.

Sexual assault: North Dakota Century Code  12.1-20-07  (does not require the actor to be an adult).

  • A person who knowingly has sexual contact with another person, or who causes another person to have sexual contact with that person, is guilty of an offense when:
  • That person knows or has reasonable cause to believe that the contact is offensive to the other person.
  • That person knows or has reasonable cause to believe that the other person suffers from a mental disease or defect which renders that other person incapable of understanding the nature of that other person’s conduct.
  • That person or someone with that person’s knowledge has substantially impaired the victim’s power to appraise or control the victim’s conduct, by administering or employing without the victim’s knowledge intoxicants, a controlled substance as defined in The Uniform Controlled Substances Act 19-03.1 , or other means for the purpose of preventing resistance.
  • The other person is in official custody or detained in a hospital, prison, or other institution and the actor has supervisory or disciplinary authority over that other person

Incest: North Dakota Century Code  12.1-20-11 (does not require the actor to be an adult).

  • A person who intermarries, cohabits, or engages in a sexual act with another person related to him within a degree of consanguinity within which marriages are declared incestuous and void by North Dakota Century Code 14-03-03 , knowing such other person to be within said degree of relationship.

Deviate sexual act: North Dakota Century Code  12.1-20-12  (does not require the actor to be an adult).

  • “Deviate sexual act” means any form of sexual contact with an animal, bird, or dead person

Indecent exposure: North Dakota Century Code  12.1-20-12.1  (does not require the actor to be an adult).

  • A person, with intent to arouse, appeal to, or gratify that person’s lust, passions, or sexual desires, if that person:
  • Masturbates in a public place or in the presence of a minor.
  • Exposes one’s penis, vulva, or anus in a public place or to a minor in a public or private place.
  • Exposes one’s penis, vulva, or anus by unsolicited electronic means.

Surreptitious intrusion: North Dakota Century Code  12.1-20-12.2 (does not require the actor to be an adult).

  • An individual, with the intent to arouse, appeal to, or gratify that individual’s lust, passions, or sexual desires, when that individual does any of the following:
  • With intent to intrude upon or interfere with the privacy of another, enters upon another’s property and surreptitiously gazes, stares, or peeps into a house or place of dwelling of another.
  • With intent to intrude upon or interfere with the privacy of another, enters upon another’s property and surreptitiously installs or uses any device for observing, photographing, recording, amplifying, or broadcasting sounds or events from a house or place of dwelling of another.
  • With intent to intrude upon or interfere with the privacy of the occupant, surreptitiously gazes, stares, or peeps into a tanning booth, a sleeping room in a hotel, or other place where a reasonable individual would have an expectation of privacy and has exposed or is likely to expose that individual’s intimate parts or has removed the clothing covering the immediate area of the intimate parts.
  • With intent to intrude upon or interfere with the privacy of the occupant, surreptitiously installs, or uses any device for observing, photographing, recording, amplifying, or broadcasting sounds or events from a tanning booth, a sleeping room in a hotel, or other place where a reasonable individual would have an expectation of privacy and has exposed or is likely to expose that individual’s intimate parts or has removed the clothing covering the immediate area of the intimate parts.

Sexual Extortion: North Dakota Century Code  12.1-20-12.3  (does not require the actor to be an adult).

  • Intends to coerce a victim to engage in sexual contact, in sexually explicit conduct, or in simulated sexually explicit conduct, or to produce, provide, or distribute an image, video, or other recording of any individual engaged in sexually explicit conduct or any intimate image of an individual, or a demand for money, communicates in person or by electronic means:
  • Knowingly causes a victim to engage in sexual contact, in sexually explicit conduct, or in simulated sexually explicit conduct, or to produce, provide, or distribute any image, video, or other recording of any individual engaged in sexually explicit conduct or any intimate image of an individual, or a demand for money, by means of:
  • Threatens the victim’s or another’s person, property, or reputation; or,
  • Threatens to distribute or an enticement to delete an intimate image or video of the victim or another

Sexual performances by children: North Dakota Century Code  12.1-27.2 (does not require the actor to be an adult)

  • use of a minor in a sexual performance
  • promoting or directing an obscene sexual performance by a minor
  • promoting a sexual performance by a minor
  • possession of certain materials prohibited

Use of a minor in a sexual performance:

  • A person, when knowing the character and content of a performance, that person employs, authorizes, or induces a minor to engage in sexual conduct during a performance or, if being a parent, legal guardian, or custodian of a minor, that person consents to the participation by the minor in sexual conduct during a performance.
  • An adult when, with the intent to persuade, induce, entice, or coerce a minor to engage in a sexual performance, the adult portrays the adult to be a minor.
  • At the extreme end of the spectrum, sexual abuse includes sexual intercourse and/or its variations. These behaviors may only be the last step in an escalating pattern of sexual abuse. For that reason and because of their effects, exhibitionism, surreptitious intrusion, sexual extortion, and use of a minor in a sexual performance as well as any sexual contact with children is also considered sexually abusive.

Promoting or directing an obscene sexual performance by a minor:

  • A person, when knowing the character and content of a performance, that person produces, directs, or promotes any obscene performance which includes sexual conduct by a person who was a minor at the time of the performance.

Promoting a sexual performance by a minor:

  • A person, when knowing the character and content of a performance, that person produces, directs, or promotes any performance which includes sexual conduct by a person who was a minor at the time of the performance.

Possession of certain materials prohibited:

  • A person, when knowing of its character and content, that person knowingly possesses any motion picture, photograph, or other visual representation that includes sexual conduct by a minor.

At the extreme end of the spectrum, sexual abuse includes sexual intercourse and/or its variations. These behaviors may only be the last step in an escalating pattern of sexual abuse. For that reason and because of their effects, exhibitionism, surreptitious intrusion, sexual extortion and use of a minor in a sexual performance as well as any sexual contact with children is also considered sexually abusive.

Abuse: sexual: Touching:

  • Touching of the sexual or other intimate parts of the person
  • Making a child touch an adult’s sexual organs; or
  • Any penetration or attempt at penetration of a child’s vagina, anus or mouth by a penis or any other object that does not have a valid medical purpose.
  • The above actions may be referenced in: 12.1-20-03, 12.1-20-03.1, 12.1-20-04, 12.1-20-05, 12.1-20.07, 12.1-20-11.

Abuse: sexual: non-touching:

  • Indecent exposure/exhibitionism – North Dakota Century Code  12.1-20-12.1 .
  • Deliberately exposing a child to the act of sexual intercourse – North Dakota Century Code 12.1-20-12.1
  • Masturbation in front of a child – North Dakota Century Code  12.1-20-12.1
  • Solicitation of a child with the intent to engage in a sexual act (a child is harassed, encouraged, pressured, or propositioned) – North Dakota Century Code  12.1-20-05
  • Surreptitious intrusion (voyeurism or secretly observing an individual, for example: undressed, engaged in sexual activity, etc.) for the purpose of sexual gratification – North Dakota Century Code  12.1-20-12.2 

Abuse: sexual: exploitation:

  • Engaging a child or soliciting a child for the purpose of prostitution. North Dakota Century Code 12.1-20-05 
  • Using a child in the recording, filming, photographing or as a model in the filming or photographing of pornographic material. North Dakota Century Code 12.1-27.2 
Administrative Assessment

An administrative assessment is the process for documenting the disposition of CPS Intakes that fall outside the criteria for a report of suspected child abuse and neglect. 

Administrative Referral

An administrative referral is the process for documenting the referral of intakes of suspected child abuse and neglect that fall outside the North Dakota CPS jurisdiction.

Alternate Caregiver

A person who is at least 18 years old who cares for a child in his or her home or in the child’s home. An alternate caregiver can be identified relative, kin, or fictive kin (i.e. friends or neighbors) of the child, or a licensed foster parent.

Alternative Response Assessment

As defined in North Dakota Century Code  50-25.1-02(4) an “Alternative response assessment” means a child protection response involving substance exposed newborns which is designed to:

a. Provide referral services to and monitor support services for a person responsible for the child’s welfare and the substance exposed newborn; and

b. Develop a plan of safe care for the substance exposed newborn.

Anonymous Reporters

A reporter may remain anonymous if they have not self-reported their name and if the report does not allege a pregnant woman abusing alcohol or using a controlled substance for a non-medical purpose. The identity of all reporters is confidential unless/until the matter reported enters a legal process or release of the information is required by state law.  

Authorized Agent

As defined in North Dakota Century Code  50-25.1-02(5)  “Authorized agent” means the human service zone, unless another entity is designated by the department.

Authorized Disclosures

Child abuse and neglect records are confidential by state law: North Dakota Century Code 50-25.1-11 ; and disclosures are only authorized as indicated:

  • A Physician: A physician who has before the physician a child whom the physician reasonably suspects may have been abused or neglected.
  • A person who is authorized to place a child in protective custody (Law Enforcement, Physician, Juvenile Court): A person who is authorized to place a child in protective custody and has before the person a child whom the person reasonably suspects may have been abused or neglected and the person requires the information to determine whether to place the child in protective custody
  • Department of Health and Human Services, Human Service Zones, Children’s Advocacy Centers, State Child Protection Team and the Citizen Review Committee: Authorized staff of the department and its authorized agents, children’s advocacy centers, and appropriate state child protection team members, and citizen review committee members
  • Subjects of the Reports: Any person who is the subject of the report; provided, however, that the identity of persons reporting or supplying information under this chapter is protected until the information is needed for use in an administrative proceeding arising out of the report
  • Public Officials: Public officials and their authorized agents who require the information in connection with the discharge of their official duties
  • Courts: A court, including an administrative hearing office, whenever the court determines that the information is necessary for the determination of an issue before the court
  • Research: A person engaged in a bona fide research purpose approved by the department’s institutional review board; provided, however, that no individually identifiable information as defined in North Dakota Century Code 50-06-15  is made available to the researcher unless the information is absolutely essential to the research purpose and the department gives prior approval
  • Mandated Reporter: An individual who is identified in subsection 1 of 50-25.1-03, and who has made a report of suspected child abuse or neglect, if the child is likely to or continues to come before the reporter in the reporter’s official or professional capacity
  • Parent or Legally Appointed Guardian: A parent or a legally appointed guardian of the child identified in the report as suspected of being, or having been, abused or neglected, provided the identity of persons making the report or supplying information under this chapter is protected. Unless the information is confidential under North Dakota Century Code 44-04-18.7, when a decision is made under  50-25.1-05.1 that a child is abused or neglected, the department or authorized agent shall make a good-faith effort to provide written notice of the decision to individuals identified in this subsection. The department or authorized agent shall consider any known domestic violence when providing notification under this section.
  • Schools: A public or private school that is the subject of a report of institutional child abuse or neglect, provided the identity of the persons reporting or supplying the information under this chapter is protected, except if the individuals reporting or supplying information are employees of the public or private school.
Child Fatality Review Panel

As defined in North Dakota Century Code  50-25.1-02(6) The “Child Fatality Review Panel” is a multidisciplinary team consisting of a representative of the department and, if possible, a forensic pathologist, a physician, a representative of the state department of health injury prevention, a representative of the attorney general, a representative of the superintendent of public instruction, a representative of the department of corrections and rehabilitation, a peace officer licensed in the state, a mental health professional, a representative of emergency medical services, a medical services representative from a federally recognized Indian tribe in this state, one or more representatives of the lay community, and a designated tribal representative, as an ad hoc member, acting for each federally recognized Indian tribe in this state. A team member, at the time of selection and while serving on the panel, must be a staff member of the public or private agency the member represents or shall serve without remuneration. The Child Fatality Review Panel may not be composed of fewer than three individuals.

Child in need of services

As defined in North Dakota Century Code 50-25.1-02(7) a “Child in need of services” means a child who in any of the following instances is in need of treatment or rehabilitation:

  • Is habitually and without justification truant from school or absent from school without an authorized excuse for more than five days during a school year;
  • Is habitually disobedient of the reasonable and lawful commands of the child’s parent, guardian, or other custodian including runaway and is ungovernable or who is willfully in a situation that is dangerous or injurious to the health, safety, or morals of the child or others;
  • Except for an offense committed by a minor who is fourteen years of age or older under subsection 2 of North Dakota Century Code 12.1-31-03 or an equivalent local ordinance or resolution, has committed an offense applicable only to a child; or
  • Is under fourteen years of age and has purchased, possessed, smoked, or used tobacco, a tobacco-related product, an electronic smoking device, or an alternative nicotine product in violation of subsection 2 of North Dakota Century Code 12.1-31-03. As used in this subdivision, “electronic smoking device” and “alternative nicotine product” have the same meaning as in  12.1-31-03 .
Child protection assessment

As defined in North Dakota Century Code 50-25.1-02(8) a “child protection assessment” means a factfinding process designed to provide information that enables a determination of whether a child meets the definition of an abused or neglected child, including instances that may not identify a specific person responsible for the child’s welfare which is responsible for the abuse or neglect.

Children's Advocacy Center

As defined in North Dakota Century Code  50-25.1-02(9)  “Children’s Advocacy Center” means a full or associate member of the national children’s alliance which assists in the coordination of the investigation in response to allegations of child abuse by providing a dedicated child-friendly location at which to conduct forensic interviews, forensic medical examinations, and other appropriate services and which promotes a comprehensive multidisciplinary team response to allegations of child abuse. The team response may include forensic interviews, forensic medical examinations, mental health and related support services, advocacy, and case review.

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Youth (CSEY)

“Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Youth (CSEY)” refers to a range of crimes and activities involving the sexual abuse or exploitation of a child for the financial benefit of any person or in exchange for anything of value (including monetary and non-monetary benefits) given or received by any person. 

    • Child sex trafficking / prostitution of children 
    • Commercial child sex activity 
    • Child engages in sexual activity in exchange for something (drugs, shelter, protection, food, anything of value) 
    • Production of child pornography 
    • Online transmission of video of a child engaged in sexual activity in exchange for anything of value 
Confirmed

As defined in North Dakota Century Code  50-25.1-02(11)  “Confirmed” means that upon completion of a child protection assessment, the department determines, based upon a preponderance of the evidence, that a child meets the definition of an abused or neglected child, and the department confirms the identity of a specific person responsible for the child’s welfare which is responsible for the abuse or neglect. 

Confirmed with unknown subject

As defined in North Dakota Century Code  50-25.1-02(12)  “Confirmed with unknown subject” means that upon completion of a child protection assessment, the department determines, based upon a preponderance of the evidence, that a child meets the definition of an abused or neglected child, but the evidence does not confirm the identity of a specific person responsible for the child’s welfare which is responsible for the abuse or neglect.

Case Plans

Means the identified goals developed with the family, which are specific, behavioral, and measurable with a focus on enhancing parent/caregiver protective capacities in order to establish child safety and a safe home. Case plans include tasks/change strategies, specified roles, and responsibilities of providers, family members, and the case manager to assist the family in achieving the identified goals.

Danger Threshold Criteria

Refers to the point at which family behaviors, conditions, or situations rise to the level of directly threatening the safety of a child. The danger threshold is crossed when family behaviors, conditions, or situations are manifested in such a way that they are beyond being just problems or risk influences and have become threatening to child safety. They are now active at a heightened degree, a greater level of intensity, and are judged to be out of the parent’s/caregiver’s or family’s control thus having implications for dangerousness. The danger threshold is crossed when all five of the following criteria are met.

1. Observable
2. Out of Control
3. Vulnerable Child
4. Consistent with Severe Harm
5. Imminent

Department

Means the department of health and human services. (DHHS)

Dual Status Youth

Dual Status Youth who have active involvement in one system (either child welfare or juvenile justice system) with concurrent involvement and/or history of involvement in the other system within the past year. 

False report

A false report is a report that is intentionally dishonest or is not made “in good faith.” A report that is made out of genuine concern for a child’s well-being is not considered a false report, even if the facts gathered during the assessment don’t confirm that the child was neglected or abused. Under North Dakota law any person who makes a false report or provides false information may be also charged with a Class B misdemeanor for which a maximum penalty of thirty days imprisonment, a fine of one thousand five hundred dollars, or both and may be also liable for civil damages suffered by the person reported. 

Family Services Assessment

As defined in North Dakota Century Code 50-25.1-02(14) Family Services Assessment means a child protection services response to reports of suspected child abuse or neglect in which the child is determined to be at low risk and safety concerns for the child are not evident according to guidelines developed by the department.

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)

All procedures involving partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. Female Genital Mutilation is Child Physical Abuse and has no health benefits. 

Surgical alteration of the genitals of a female minor – North Dakota Century Code 12.1-36-01 

  • Except as provided in subsection 2, any person who knowingly separates or surgically alters normal, healthy, functioning genital tissue of a female minor is guilty of a class C felony.
  • A surgical operation is not a violation of this section if a licensed medical practitioner performs the operation to correct an anatomical abnormality or to remove diseased tissue that is an immediate threat to the health of the female minor. In applying this subsection, any belief that the operation is required as a matter of custom, ritual, or standard of practice may not be taken into consideration.
  • Any parent, adult family or household member, guardian, or other custodian of any child who willfully allows a child to be surgically altered under this section is guilty of child abuse under subsection 1 of North Dakota Century Code 14-09-22 .
  • A custom, ritual, religious practice, or the consent of the parent or guardian of a minor is not a defense against a violation under this section.
  • Notwithstanding the limitations of North Dakota Century Code 29-04-02 , prosecution for a violation of subsection 3 must be commenced within three years of the date of the offense or within three years after the offense is reported to law enforcement, whichever is later. 
Family Centered Engagement (FCE)

Family centered engagement meetings designed to create a participatory and inclusive process that brings together those with relationships to the children and service providers to improve child welfare decision making and outcomes for eligible children (front end diversion from foster care and Dual Status Youth). 

Foster Care

Foster care for children means the provision of substitute parental child care to those children described in North Dakota Century Code Chapter 50-11 ; and includes the provision of food, shelter, security and safety, guidance and comfort on a twenty-four hour basis, to one or more children under twenty-one years of age to safeguard the child’s growth and development and to minimize and counteract hazards to the child’s emotional health inherent in the separation from the child’s family. Foster care may be provided in a foster family home, qualified residential treatment program, or supervised independent living program.

Grooming

Grooming is a deliberate process by which offenders gradually initiate and maintain sexual relationships with victims in secrecy. 

Human Trafficking

 As defined in North Dakota Century Code 12.1-41-01(5) Human trafficking, or trafficking in persons, is defined as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, the abuse of power or a position of vulnerability, or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. When human trafficking involves a child under the age of 18, force, fraud or coercion are not required elements of trafficking.

  • Sex trafficking: the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for the purpose of a commercial sex act, in which the commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age
  • Labor Trafficking: the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery.
In-home safety plan

Refers to safety management so that safety services, actions, and responses assure a child can be kept safe in his/her own home. In-home safety plans include activities and services that may occur within the home or outside the home but contribute to the child remaining home. People participating in in-home safety plans may be responsible for what they do inside or outside the child’s home. An in-home safety plan primarily involves the home setting and the child’s location within the home as central to the safety plan; however, in-home safety plans can also include periods of separation of the child from the home and may even contain an out-of-home placement option such as on weekends (e.g., respite)

Impending Danger

As defined in North Dakota Century Code 50-25.1-02(15) impending danger means a foreseeable state of danger in which a behavior, attitude, motive, emotion, or situation can be reasonably anticipated to have severe effects on a child according to criteria developed by the department (see Danger Threshold Criteria). There are 14 Impending Danger Threats: 

 

  1. Living arrangements seriously endanger the physical health of the child. Living conditions are the end of the continuum for deplorable and result in immediate danger for the children; remaining in the environment could result in severe injuries and health repercussions today, or in the next few days.
  2. One or both parents/caregivers intend(ed) to seriously hurt the child and do not show remorse.  The parent’s / caregiver’s conscious purpose was to hurt the child, rather than to discipline. The act was intentional, objective was to cause pain and suffering and there was no one in the house that could stop the behavior. 
  3. One or both parents/caregivers cannot or do not explain the child’s injuries and/or conditions. An injury to a child without a reasonable explanation (history, circumstantial information, facts and medical evaluations are incongruent / contradictory of the parent’s / caregiver’s accounts) is a family situation that is out of control. 
  4. The child is profoundly fearful of the home situation or people within the home. The child’s fear is obvious, extreme, and related to some perceived danger that the child feels or experiences. This may also include nonverbal behaviors and emotions of a child that clearly and vividly demonstrate fear. 
  5. One or both parents/caregivers are violent. Violence refers to aggression, fighting, brutality, cruelty, and hostility. Vulnerable children who cannot self-protect or who cannot get out of the way, and who have no one to protect them could experience severe physical or emotional effects from the violence. This includes situations involving domestic violence whereby the circumstance could result in severe effects including physical injury, terror, or death. Family violence may be classified as out-of-control when there is nothing within the household to manage or mitigate the parent’s/caregiver’s behavior.
  6. One or both parents/caregivers emotional stability, development, mental status, or cognitive deficiency seriously impairs their ability to care for their child. The lack of the parent’s/caregiver’s ability to meet the immediate needs of a child may be due to a physical disability, significant developmental disability, or mental/behavioral health condition that prevents adequate parental role performance. The disability or condition is significant, pervasive, and consistently debilitating to the point where the child’s needs are being compromised. This threat refers to parents/caregivers who cannot perform their parental responsibilities due to a lack of fundamental deficiencies. 
  7. One or both parent’s/caregiver’s behavior is dangerously impulsive or they will not/cannot control their behavior. This threat is about self-control. The parent’s/caregiver’s lack of self-control places vulnerable children in jeopardy. This threat includes parent’s/caregiver’s who are incapacitated or not controlling their behavior because of mental health or substance abuse issues. Poor impulse control or lack of self-control includes behaviors other than aggression and can lead to severe consequence to a child. The threat could result in severe effects as parents/caregivers lashing out at children, failing to supervise children, or leaving children in the care of irresponsible others. 
  8. Family does not have or use resources necessary to assure the child’s basic needs. “Basic needs” refers to the family’s lack of 1) minimal resources to provide shelter, food, and clothing or 2) the capacity to use resources for basic needs, even when available. The absence of these basic resources could cause serious injury, serious medical or physical health problems, starvation, or serious malnutrition.
  9. No adult in the home will perform parental duties and responsibilities. The parent/caregiver who normally is responsible for protecting the child is absent, likely to be absent, is incapacitated in some way, or becomes incapacitated and is not available. Nothing within the family can compensate for the condition. 
  10. One or both parents/caregivers have extremely unrealistic expectations. The expectation of the child is totally unreasonable. No one in or outside the family has much influence on altering the parent’s/caregiver’s perception or expectations about the child and there is no viable explanation. The parent/caregiver is out-of-control and may have extreme expectations of the child that places far too much responsibility on him/her, is developmentally inappropriate, psychologically distressing, and potentially physically dangerous. 
  11. One or both parents/caregivers have extremely negative perceptions of the child. “Extremely” means a negative perception that is so exaggerated that an out-of-control response by the parent/caregiver is likely and will have severe consequences for the child. The extreme negative perception fuels the parent’s/caregiver’s emotions and could escalate the level of response toward the child. The extreme perception may provide justification to the parent/caregiver for acting out or ignoring the child. Severe effects could occur with a vulnerable child, such as serious physical injury, extreme neglect related to medical and basic care, failure to thrive, etc. 
  12. One or both parents/caregivers fear they will maltreat the child and/or request placement. This refers to parents/caregivers who express anxiety and dread about their ability to control their emotions and reactions toward their child. This expression represents a parent’s/caregiver’s distraught and/or extreme “call for help.” A request for placement is extreme evidence with respect to a parent’s/caregiver’s conclusion that the child can only be safe if he or she is away from the parent/caregiver.
  13. One or both parents/caregivers lack parenting knowledge, skills, and/or motivation necessary to assure the child’s basic needs are met. Basic parenting directly affects meeting the child’s needs for food, clothing, shelter, and required level of supervision. The inability (i.e., immaturity, intellectual capacity, knowledge of child development, parenting and safety) and/or unwillingness to meet basic needs create a concern for immediate and severe consequences for a vulnerable child. 
  14. The child has exceptional needs which the parents/caregivers cannot or will not meet. “Exceptional” refers to specific child conditions (e.g., developmental disability, blindness, serious mental/behavioral health needs, physical disability, special medical needs). Parents/caregivers, by not addressing the child’s exceptional needs, create an immediate concern for severe consequences to the child. This does not refer to parents/caregivers who do not do particularly well at meeting the child’s special needs, but the consequences are relatively mild. Rather, this refers to specific capacities/skills/intentions in parenting that must occur and are required for the “exceptional” child not to suffer serious consequences.
Indicated

As defined in North Dakota Century Code 50-25.1-02(16) indicated means that upon completion of an assessment of a report of institutional child abuse or neglect, the department determines based upon a preponderance of the evidence, that a child meets the definition of an abused or neglected child.

Institutional child abuse or neglect

As defined in North Dakota Century Code 50-25.1-02(17) Institutional child abuse or neglect means situations of known or suspected child abuse or neglect when the institution responsible for the child’s welfare is a public or private school, a residential facility or setting either licensed, certified, or approved by the department, or a residential facility or setting that receives funding from the department. For purposes of this subsection, residential facilities and settings excludes correctional, medical, home- and community-based residential rehabilitation, and educational boarding care settings.

Mandated reporter

As defined in North Dakota Century Code 50-25.1-03 in North Dakota anyone may report suspected child abuse or neglect to Child Protection Services (CPS). However, certain professionals must, by law, report suspected child abuse or neglect, in other words, they are mandated reporters.  

Near death

As defined in North Dakota Century Code 50-25.1-02(18)  near death means an act that, as certified by a physician, places a child in serious or critical condition.

Neglected child

As defined in North Dakota Century Code 50-25.1-02(19) , neglected child is a child who, due to the action or inaction of a person responsible for the child’s welfare:

a.  Is without proper care or control, subsistence, education as required by law, or other care or control necessary for the child’s physical, mental, or emotional health, or morals, and is not due primarily to the lack of financial means of a person responsible for the child’s welfare;

b.  Has been placed for care or adoption in violation of law;

c.  Has been abandoned;

d.  Is without proper care, control, or education as required by law, or other care and control necessary for the child’s well-being because of the physical, mental, emotional, or other illness or disability of a person responsible for the child’s welfare, and that such lack of care is not due to a willful act of commission or act of omission, and care is requested by a person responsible for the child’s welfare;

e.  Is in need of treatment and a person responsible for the child’s welfare has refused to participate in treatment as ordered by the juvenile court;

f.  Was subject to prenatal exposure to chronic or severe use of alcohol or any controlled substance as defined in section 19-03.1-01 in a manner not lawfully prescribed by a practitioner;

g.  Is present in an environment subjecting the child to exposure of a controlled substance, chemical substance, or drug paraphernalia as prohibited by section 19-03.1-22.2 , except as used in this subsection, controlled substance includes any amount of marijuana; or

h.  Is a victim of human trafficking as defined in Title 12.1 (Criminal Code)

Out-of-home safety plan

Refers to safety management when a child cannot be kept safe in his/her own home. Out-of-home safety plans involve child placement in a safe and stable environment with alternate caregivers who 1) possess adequate parent/caregiver protective capacity to meet or accommodate the needs of the child, 2) is/are cleared of criminal activity and CPS history after completing all necessary background checks, and 3) is/are sufficient to manage impending danger. The alternate caregivers are typically relatives, kin, fictive kin, or licensed foster parents unless the child needs placement in a facility due to the identified needs.

Parent/caregiver protective capacities

Refers to personal and parenting behavioral, cognitive, and emotional characteristics that can specifically and directly be associated with a person being protective of his/her child. A protective capacity is a specific quality that can be observed, understood, and demonstrated as part of the way a parent/caregiver thinks, feels, and acts that makes him/her protective.

Person responsible for the child's welfare

As defined in North Dakota Century Code 50-25.1-02(1)  a person responsible for the child’s welfare means an individual who has responsibility for the care or supervision of a child and who is the child’s parent, an adult family member of the child, any member of the child’s household, the child’s guardian, or the child’s foster parent; or an employee of, or any person providing care for the child in, a child care setting. For the purpose of institutional child abuse or neglect, “A person responsible for the child’s welfare” means an institution that has responsibility for the care or supervision of a child

Plan of Safe Care

A plan of safe care is an action plan to address the health and safety needs of the substance exposed newborn and the health and substance use disorder treatment needs of the infant’s caregivers. A Plan of Safe Care is intended to provide knowledge and supports to sustain safety and health beginning during the CPS assessment and continuing after the CPS intervention ends.

Pregnant Woman Assessment

A pregnant woman assessment is an assessment response to reports of pregnant women’s abuse of alcohol and/or use of controlled substances. Services offered may include a referral for an addiction assessment, a referral for substance use disorder treatment and referral for prenatal care.

Prenatal exposure to a controlled substance

As defined in North Dakota Century Code 50-25.1-02(20), prenatal exposure to a controlled substance means use of a controlled substance as defined in North Dakota Century Code Chapter 19-03.1 Uniform Controlled Substances Act by a pregnant woman for a nonmedical purpose during pregnancy as evidenced by withdrawal symptoms in the child at birth, results of a toxicology test performed on the mother at delivery or the child at birth, or medical effects or developmental delays during the child’s first year of life that medically indicate prenatal exposure to a controlled substance.

Preponderance of the Evidence Standard

Evidence that is of greater weight, or more convincing than evidence offered in opposition to it; more probable than not*. The standard for making and supporting CPS assessment maltreatment decisions is a preponderance of evidence. This standard is established by North Dakota Century Code 28-32-46(5).

* Legal Thesaurus/Legal Dictionary: A Resource for the Writer and Computer Researcher; William P. Statsky; 1985

Present Danger Threats

Refer to immediate, significant, and clearly observable family conditions that are actively occurring or ‘in process’ of occurring and will likely result in severe harm to a child. 

Present Danger Threats are divided into four categories (Maltreatment, Child, Parent and Family): 

Maltreatment:

  • The child is currently being maltreated at the time of the report or contact. This means that the child is being maltreated at the time the report is being made, maltreatment has occurred the same day as the contact, or maltreatment is in process at the time of contact. 
  • Severe to extreme maltreatment of the child is suspected, observed, or confirmed. This includes severe or extreme forms of maltreatment and can include severe injuries, serious unmet health needs, cruel maltreatment, and psychological torture. 
  • The child has multiple or different kinds of injuries. This generally refers to different kinds of injuries, such as bruising or burns, but it is acceptable to consider one type of injury on different parts of the body. 
  • The child has injuries to the face or head. This includes physical injury to the face or head of the child alleged to be the result of maltreatment. 
  • The child has unexplained injuries. This refers to a serious injury which parents/caregivers and others cannot or will not explain. It includes circumstances where the injury is known to be non-accidental and the maltreater is unknown. 
  • The maltreatment demonstrates bizarre cruelty. This includes such things as locking up children, torture, extreme emotional abuse, etc.
  • The maltreatment of several victims us suspected, observed, or confirmed. This refers to the identification of more than one child who is currently being maltreated by the same parent/caregiver. (typically occurs with another threat) 
  • The maltreatment is premeditated. The maltreatment appears to be the result of deliberate, preconceived plan, or intent. (typically occurs with another threat) 
  • Dangerous (life threatening) living arrangements are present. This includes seriously unsafe buildings, serious fire hazards, accessible weapons, unsafe heating or wiring, etc. 

 

Child:

  • Child is unsupervised and unable to care for self. This applies if the child is without care. This includes circumstances where an older child is left to supervise younger children and is incapable of doing so. 
  • Child needs medical attention. This applies to a child of any age. To be a present danger threat of harm, the medical care required must be significant enough that its absence could seriously affect the child’s health and well-being. Lack of routine medical care is not a present danger threat. 
  • Child is profoundly fearful of the home situation or people within the home. The child’s fear must be obvious, extreme, and related to some perceived danger that the child feels or experiences. 

 

Parent: 

  • Parent/caregiver is unable or unwilling to perform basic duties. This only refers to those parental duties and responsibilities consistent with basic care or supervision, not to whether the parent/caregiver is generally effective or appropriate. 
  • Parent/caregiver is demonstrating bizarre behaviors. This may include unpredictable, incoherent, outrageous, or totally inappropriate behavior. 
  • Parent/caregiver is acting dangerous now or is described as dangerous. This includes a parent/caregiver described as physically or verbally threatening, brandishing weapons, known to be dangerous and aggressive, currently behaving in an aggressive manner, etc. 
  • Parent/caregiver is out of control (mental illness or other significant lack of control). This can include unusual or dangerous behaviors; includes mental or emotional distress where a parent/caregiver cannot manage their behaviors in order to meet their parenting responsibilities related to providing basic, necessary care and supervision.
  • Parent/caregiver is under the influence of substances. This refers to a parent/caregiver who is intoxicated or under the influence of drugs much of the time and this impacts their ability to care for the child. 
  • One or both parents/caregivers overtly reject intervention. The key word here is “overtly.” This means that the parent/caregiver essentially avoids all agency attempts at communication and completion of the CPS assessment or child safety assessment. This refers to situations where a parent/caregiver refuses to see or speak with the CPS worker and/or to let the CPS worker or other involved agencies see the child; is openly hostile (not just angry about agency presence) or physically aggressive towards professionals, refuses access to the home, hides the child or refuses access to the child.
  • Parent’s/caregiver’s viewpoint of the child is bizarre. This refers to an extreme viewpoint that could be dangerous for the child, not just a negative attitude toward the child. The parent’s/caregiver’s perception or viewpoint toward the child is so skewed and distorted that it poses an immediate danger to that child.
  • Parent’s/caregiver’s whereabouts are unknown. This includes situations when a parent/caregiver cannot be located at the time of the report or contact, and this affects the safety of the child. (typically occurs with another threat) 

 

Family: 

  • Child is subject to present/active domestic violence. This refers to presently occurring domestic violence or a general recurring state of domestic violence where a child is being subjected to the actions and behaviors of a perpetrator of domestic violence. There is greater concern when the abuse of a parent/caregiver and the abuse of a child occur during the same time.
  • The family hides the child. This includes families who physically restrain a child within the home as well as families who avoid allowing others to have contact with their child by passing the child around to other relatives, or other means to limit CPS access to the child. (typically occurs with another threat) 
  • The family may flee. Transient families, families with no clear home, or homes that are not established, etc., should be considered. This refers to families who are likely to be impossible or difficult to locate and does not include families that are considering a formal, planned move. (typically occurs with another threat)
Problematic Child Sexual Behaviors

Clinical set of concerning sexual behaviors that are developmentally inappropriate and potentially harmful to self and others; sexual behavior becomes problematic when it is planned, coerced, illegal, there is disparate ages, or it preoccupies the child’s time. 

Protective Services

As defined in North Dakota Century Code 50-25.1-02(21) protective services are services performed after an assessment of a report of child abuse or neglect has been conducted, such as social assessment, service planning, implementation of service plans, treatment services, referral services, coordination with referral sources, progress assessment, monitoring service delivery, and direct services.

Psychological Maltreatment

Psychological maltreatment is a type of neglect defined as the psychological consequences of patterns of behavior or an extreme incident(s) by a caregiver which involves rejecting, isolating, threatening, ignoring, and/or exposing to negative influences, whether through acts of omission or commission. These acts convey to children that they are worthless, flawed, unloved, unwanted, endangered, or only of value to meeting another’s needs.

Rejecting – Caregiver does not acknowledge the child’s worth or their needs 

Examples: Caregiver calls the child degrading terms, humiliates a child, blames the child for problems

Isolating – Caregiver cuts the child off from normal social experiences and prevents the child from forming friendships

Examples: Confining child within the home, restricting social interactions in the community. 

Threatening – Caregiver verbally assaults the child, creates a climate of fear, bullies, or frightens the child. 

Examples: Direct or indirect threats of harm that if carried out could result in physical or mental harm, threatening / perpetrating violence against the child’s loved ones or pets

Ignoring – Caregiver deprives the child of essential interaction and responsiveness, stifling emotional growth and intellectual development. 

Examples: Caregiver expresses no affection toward the child and avoids all physical closeness such as hugging, touching or holding, child repeatedly left in the care of others for days or weeks at a time, lack of discipline or rules

Negative Influences – Caregiver “mis-socializes” the child, models or encourages the child to engage in destructive antisocial behavior, and/or illegal activities and makes it difficult for the child to have normal social experiences. 

Examples: Caregiver exposes the child to pornographic material and/or sexual activity, caregiver exposes, permits or forces the child to engage in harmful behavior such as gang activity, shoplifting, drug activity. 

Refusal of Services – Caregiver refuses to address the physical, mental, or emotional health of the child. 

Example: Caregiver fails to follow through with a referral fir evaluation or treatment for a child at risk of suicide, or who is using alcohol or substances. 

Exposure to Domestic Violence – Child is aware of domestic violence (eye or ear witness to active violence or aftereffects such as injuries, broken items and police presence). Children may be put in a position if feeling responsible to protect the adult being abused and themselves. 

Parental / Caregiver Relations – Caregivers continually place the children in the middle of their disputes. 

Example: Child asked to choose sides or pass messages in a custody dispute; caregivers degrade each other in the presence of the children 

Parental Capacity – Parent / caregiver protective capacities are impaired to a degree that the   caregiver is unable to provide safe care for the child. 

Example: Caregivers are actively abusing substances, caregivers are actively psychotic

Safe Child

A safe child is one in which there are no threats of danger within the family OR when the parents/caregivers possess sufficient protective capacity to manage any threats OR the child is not vulnerable to existing danger. 

Safe Haven / Abandoned Infant

As defined in North Dakota Century Code 50-25.1-15 safe haven / abandoned infant means an infant who has been abandoned at birth at a hospital or before reaching the age of one year regardless of the location of birth and who has been left with an on-duty staff member at an approved location in an unharmed condition. View the Baby Safe Haven training here.

Safety Plan

A written arrangement between parents/caregivers and the agency that is required when a child is concluded to be unsafe. A safety plan establishes how impending danger threats will be managed. It is implemented and active as long as impending danger threats exist, and parent/caregiver protective capacities are insufficient to assure a child is protected. See “in-home safety plan” and “out-of-home safety plan”. 

Severe Harm

Refers to detrimental effects consistent with serious or significant injury, disablement, grave/debilitating physical health or physical conditions, acute/grievous suffering, terror, impairment, or death.

State child protection team

A multidisciplinary team consisting of a representative of the department and, where possible, a representative of the state department of health, a representative of the attorney general, a representative of law enforcement, a representative of the superintendent of public instruction, a parent with lived experience, one or more representatives of the lay community, and, as an ad hoc member, the designee of the chief executive official of any institution named in a report  of institutional abuse or neglect. All team members, at the time of their selection and thereafter, must be staff members of the public or private agency they represent or shall serve without remuneration. An attorney member of the child protection team may not be appointed to represent the child or the parents at any subsequent court proceeding, nor may the child protection team be composed of fewer than three individuals. A quorum of the state child protection team consists of a minimum of one member from the department and two other state child protection team members.

Substance exposed newborn

 As defined in North Dakota Century Code 50-25.1-02(23): substance exposed newborn is an infant twenty-eight days of age or younger at the time of the initial report of child abuse or neglect and who is identified as being affected by substance abuse or withdrawal symptoms or by a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. 

Temporary Protective Custody

The Juvenile Court Act 27-20-13 authorizes Juvenile Court Officers, Law Enforcement Officers, and Physicians treating a child to take temporary protective custody of a child, if they have reason to believe that the child is in immediate danger and that the removal is necessary.  Any physician examining a child with respect to whom abuse or neglect is known or suspected, after reasonable attempts to advise the parents, guardian, or other person having responsibility for the care of the child that the physician suspects has been abused or neglected, may keep the child in the custody of the hospital or medical facility for not to exceed ninety-six hours and must immediately notify the juvenile court and the department or authorized agent in order that child protective proceedings may be instituted per North Dakota Century Code 50-25.1-07 . 

Threats to child safety

Refers to specific conditions, behaviors, emotions, perceptions, attitudes, intents, actions, or situations within a family that represent the potential for severe harm to a child. A threat to child safety may be classified as present danger threats or impending danger threats.

Unable to determine

As defined in North Dakota Century Code 50-25.1-02(24): unable to determine is a child protection assessment determination that means insufficient evidence is available to enable a determination whether a child meets the definition of an abused or neglected child. 

Unconfirmed

As defined in North Dakota Century Code 50-25.1-02(25): unconfirmed is a child protection assessment determination that means that upon completion of a child protection assessment, the department has determined, based upon a preponderance of the evidence, that a child does not meet the definition of an abused or neglected child.

Unsafe Child

Unsafe child is one in which threats of danger exist within the family AND the child is vulnerable to such threats AND parents/caregivers have insufficient protective capacities to manage or control the threats.

This Mandated Reporters Interactive Training site is provided by the
North Dakota Department of Health and Human Services
Children and Family Services
600 E. Blvd. Ave. Dept. 325, Bismarck ND 58505-0250
Phone: (701) 328-2310 Toll Free: (800) 472-2622 Fax: (701) 328-3538
dhscfs@nd.gov

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